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The IBM PC MC6800, MC6801, MC6802, MC6808, MC68HC11 cross assembler
brief description

Actually this is cross assembler for MC68HC11. Because other processors
are subset of MC68HC11 (and generated code is same) you could use this
one to compile programs for all of them (avoid using instructions that
do not belong to particular processor).

Config file
        By default _68 searches for MC68HC11.CFG in current directory
        and if such file was not found then in start up directory.
        If @ parameter is specified on command line
        then searches only for specified file.
        This file could contain parameters one at a line. Specifiy your
        favorite parameters here.
        For example:
        ******* MC68HC11.CFG *******
        ******* end of file *******
        means that compiler will always generate listing and error
        files. And symbol TEST for conditional compilation is defined.


Expressions may consist of symbols, constants or the character '*'
(denoting the current value of the program counter) joined together
by one of the operators: + - * / % & | ^ ~ ! \ <, >, <=, >=, =, <>, !=.
The operators are

Priority 1
        ()      parenthesis
Priority 2
        ~       bitwise not (xor with $ffffffff)
        !       same as above (equals to ~)
Priority 3
        *       multiply
        /       divide
        %       remainder after division
        \       remainder after division (for compatibility reasons)
        &       bitwise and
Priority 4
        +       add
        -       subtract
        ^       bitwise exclusive-or
        |       bitwise or
Priority 5
        relations: <, >, <=, >=, =, <>, != (<> is equivalent to !=)
                   result is 0 = false, $ffffffff = true

Expressions are evaluated according to priority. Arithmetic is carried
out in signed twos-complement long integer precision (32 bits on the IBM PC).

In all numerical constants underscore could be used and compiler ignores it.

Constants are constructed with the following syntax:
   digits (optionally followed by '.')                  123   2345.   65_536

   Motorola style: preceded by '$'                       $1b    $ffff_ffff
   Intel style:    followed by 'H'                        1bH   0ffff_ffffh
   C style:        preceded by '0x'                      0x1b   0xffffffff

   Motorola style:  preceded by '%'                       %101   %1011_1100
   pseudo C style: preceded by '0i'                      0i101  0i10111100
   pseudo Intel:   followed by 'I'                          1i    1011_1100i
*  Intel style:    followed by 'B'                          1b    1011_1100b
                   because this style is dangerous (one could forget $ sign
                   for example 1b instead of $1b) if you want to use this
                   style you should enable it by using "intelbin" pseudo-op.

   Motorola Style: preceded by "@"                       @123   @232   @021
   pseudo C style: preceded by "0o" or "0Q"             0o123  0q232  0Q021
   Intel style:    followed  by O or Q                    123q  0232Q    21o
!  C style:        not supported (0123 is not octal)

String & ASCII char
   Pascal style but surrounded by ' or "      'ab''cd'    "abcd"    '--"--'

Identifiers: A string of characters with an initial non-digit.
             The string of characters may be from the set:
             (_ count as non-digit). Only first 15 chars of identifier
             are significant. Identifiers are case insensitive.

Label:  A symbol starting in the first column is a label.
        If it is followed by ':' then this is a global label.

Operand:  Follows mnemonic, separated by at least one
          whitespace character. The contents of the operand
          field is interpreted by each instruction.

Whitespace:  A blank or a tab

Comment:  Any text that starts with ';' up to the end of line

        assembly instructions BSET, BCLR has the following syntax
        BSET    op1 #op2
        BCLR    op1 #op2

        assembly instructions BrSET, BrCLR has the following syntax
        BrSET    op1 #op2, op3
        BrCLR    op1 #op2, op3

        Note ',' separates op2 & op3. If you want to separate them only
        with space (as is in as11) then first enable this feature by using
        as11 pseudo op

  following mnemonics could be used instead of standard one (see MC68HC11.prn)
        CPA CPB CPD
        LDA LDB LDD
        ORA ORB
        PHA PHB
        PLA PLB
        STA STB STD
        XORA XORB

        PHX PHY
        PLX PLY

  Indexed address mode. Any of following syntax could be used:
        x, expression
        expression, x

Conditional compilation
        Implemented using pseudo-ops if/ifdef/ifndef/else/endif

        .ifdef/ifndef xxxx


        .if expression

        .define XXX
        .undef XXX

Include files
        Implemented using pseudo-op INCLUDE
        .include filename

        Every pseudo-op could be preceded optionally by '.'. (Conditional
        compilation too - you could use or could not use '.').
        Following pseudo ops are implemented

  PROC/ENDP - procedure definition

        label   PROC
        [label] ENDP

        All labels from procedure's body are local, except that defined
        using EQU, or labels followed by ':'.

        It is not allowed to have local & global labels with same names.

        example: see SECTION example 2. There are two local labels that
                 could be used again in other procedures.

        Dummy section. Compiler does not generate code.

        example 1:
                              section WorkArea
                      wrk_b   db      0       ; work cell (byte)
                      wrk_w   dw      0       ; work cell (word)
                      wrk_b1  ds      1       ; work cell (byte)
                      wrk_w2  ds      2       ; work cell (word)
                              ; do not exceed WorkArea
                              error   *-WorkArea > WorkAreaSize

        example 2:
                          section 0
                 next       dw      0
                 id_number  dw      0
                 data2      ds      123

                 * import: X reg points to beginning of linked list
                 *         D reg contains id_number to search
                 * export: X reg = 0 (if error) or
                 *         contains ptr (if ok)
                 SearchNum       proc
                                 cpx     #0
                                 beq     quit
                                 cmpd    x.id_number
                                 beq     quit
                                 ldx     x.next
                                 bne     loop
                 quit            rts
                 SearchNum       endp

  DB, DW, DD - define byte, word or double word
        example:        db 'This is example', 10, 0
                        dw 12*12 [22]   ; 22 times 144
                        dd [22] 12*12   ; same as above but double words

  DS - define space
        example:        DS 24   ; allocates 24 bytes of memory
                        DS 22, 144 ; 22 bytes of memory filled with 144

        EQU - standard behaviour. Defines global symbol
        =   - equivalent to EQU
        ==  - same as = but defines local symbol

  ORG - standard behaviour

  ERROR expression - user defined error if expression != 0
        example: see SECTION example 1.

  LIST on/off

  TRUNC on/off - truncate long lines (try with listing on and DB '........')

  INTELBIN on/off - enable (disable) usage of Intel style format bin constants

  Other pseudo-ops
        LSB (= DB), MSB, DWP (= DW), DWN, DDP (= DD), DDN, CHECKSUM

  as11 compatibility
    FCC (= DB), FCB (= DB), FDB (= DW), RMB (= DS)
    AS11 on/off (enable space as separator in BrSET, BrCLR mnemo)

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